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  • Wood JD Neuropathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal


    [31] Wood JD. Neuropathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders. World J Gastroenterol 2007;13(9):1313–32. [32] Gonlachanvit S, Chey WD, Goodman KJ, Parkman HP. Effect of meal size and test duration on gastric emptying and gastric myoelectrical activity as determined with simultaneous [13C]octanoate breath test and electrogastrography in normal sub-jects using a muffin meal. Dig Dis Sci 2001;46(12):2643–50. [33] Murakami H, Matsumoto H, Kubota H, Higashida M, Nakamura M, Hirai T. Evaluation of electrical activity after vagus nerve-preserving distal gastrectomy using multichannel electrogastrography. J Smooth Muscle Res 2013;49:1–14. [34] Imai K, Sakita M. Pre- and postoperative electrogastrography in patients with gastric cancer. Hepatogastroenterology 2005;52(62):639–44. [35] Bonaz BL, Bernstein CN. Brain-gut interactions in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 2013;144(1):36–49. [36] Huston JM. The vagus nerve and the inflammatory reflex: wandering on a new treatment paradigm for systemic inflammation and sepsis. Surg Infect (Larchmt)
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    relationship between PSB 1115 rate variability and time-course of carcinoembryonic antigen in colorectal cancer. Auton Neurosci 2012;166(1-2):96–9. [40] May O, Arildsen H, Moller M. Parasympathetic function during deep breathing in the general population: relation to coronary risk factors and normal range. J Intern Med 1999;245(3):287–94. [41] Sacha J. Interaction between heart rate and heart rate variability. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2014;19(3):207–16.
    Association Between Health Behaviors and Family History of Cancer According to Sex in the General Population
    Introduction: Family history of cancer and modifiable risk factors are each associated with cancer development, but no studies have assessed their association with each other by sex. This study aimed to examine modifiable risk factors in individuals with a family history of cancer compared with those without a family history of cancer, according to sex.
    Methods: This study recruited 166,810 participants aged 40−79 years from Korea’s Health Examinee Study cohort between 2004 and 2014. Results were calculated as AORs and 95% CIs to determine the relationship between family history of cancer in first-degree relatives and modifiable risk factors. Data analyses were performed in 2018.
    Results: The prevalence of modifiable cancer risk factors, including current smoking, drinking alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, and abdominal obesity, were different according to the presence of a family history of cancer, cancer type of such a family history, and sex. Male participants with a family history of cancer were less likely to be current smokers or obese (AOR=0.95, 95% CI=0.91, 0.99 and AOR=0.95, 95% CI=0.92, 0.99, respectively) than those without a family history of cancer, whereas female participants with a family history of cancer were more likely to be current smokers but less likely to be physically inactive (AOR=1.13, 95% CI=1.03, 1.23 and AOR=0.96, 95% CI=0.93, 0.98, respectively) than those without a family history of cancer.
    Conclusions: This study’s findings suggest that, in general, males with a family history of cancer show better health behaviors, whereas females with a family history of cancer demonstrate worse health behaviors.
    INTRODUCTION C ancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide, causing 8.9 million deaths in 2016.1 Well-known modifiable risk factors, such as smoking, drinking alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, and abdominal obesity, are known to affect the spectrum of cancer control,2 and, to a different extent, by sex.3,4 Changing Enelopes modifiable risk factors, which are also associated with personal, community, and social factors, can effectively prevent cancer. More specifically, per-sonal factors such as individual knowledge, attitude, and perceived benefits and risks are particularly important in controlling modifiable factors and reducing the risk of cancer.5 
    Family history of cancer (FHCA) is an important non-modifiable risk factor for cancer6 and may influence individual health beliefs, including risk perception.7−9 Because a family with an FHCA shares a common